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                          FIRE EXTINGUISHER TIP- P.A.S.S
                          P   ......Pull the Pin.
                          A    ......Aim the extinguisher
                                nozzle at the base of the
                          S    ......Squeeze trigger while
                                holding the extinguisher
                           S    ......Sweep the extinguisher
                                from side to side, covering the
                                area of the fire with the extinguishing agent.

                                                                            Home Fires

                   Every year nearly 4,000 Americans die in home fires and more than 25,000
                   are injured. Children and the elderly are especially at risk in home fires because
                   they are less able to escape when fire strikes. You can improve the chances
                   that your family will survive a home fire by making sure that they can escape
                   quickly if necessary.

                   Smoke Alarms are Life Savers

                   The primary fire safety strategy for any home is to warn the occupants early. The
                   best way to get the earliest warning of danger is by installing enough smoke
                   alarms. Homes should have a smoke alarm near the bedrooms, but not so close
                   to the kitchen that you have problems with alarms from cooking. It's a good idea to
                   have a smoke alarm in each bedroom, especially if you sleep with the door

                   Planning Your Escape

                   The other part of the fire safety plan is for everyone to get out quickly. When you
                   are awakened in the middle of the night to a fire, your thinking may be confused,
                   so it is important that you practice your escape plan ahead of time. That way,
                   your whole family will know what to do. Manufactured homes have more ways to
                   escape than most other homes. There are always two doors, and every bedroom
                   has an emergency escape window. Make sure that everyone knows how to open
                   the emergency windows so no time is wasted when fire strikes. These windows
                   are labeled with operating instructions. Everyone in the family, as well as frequent
                   visitors and babysitters, should practice the escape plan, including opening the
                   escape windows.

                   Can You Beat the Clock?

                   Most people do not realize how quickly fires can grow. A home fire can become a
                   killer in as little as 3 minutes. Can your family get out this fast? Consider that it
                   may take one minute for the smoke alarm to sound and for you to recognize the
                   danger. If you have young children or you are elderly and move more slowly, you
                   may need another minute to get ready. This leaves only 1 minute for you all to get
                   to an exit, open it, and get out. By practicing your escape, you can make every
                   second count.

                   Steps to a Safe Escape

                     1.Have at least two working smoke alarms, test them monthly.
                     2.Plan two ways out of every room.
                     3.Practice your escape plan twice yearly.
                     4.Practice crawling low under smoke.
                     5.Have a pre-arranged meeting place outside your home.
                     6.Call the fire department from a neighbor's home.
                     7.Once outside, stay out.

                                                                 .Carbon Monoxide

                                 Physical Characteristics and Sources
                                 Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It occurs
                                 naturally in the air as the result of incomplete combustion processes,
                                 such as forest fires, the oxidation of methane, and other natural
                                 processes. Natural background concentrations are about .05 - .15
                                 parts per million. This is an insignificant level compared to
                                 concentrations found in urban environments, where CO is by far the
                                 most abundant pollutant in the atmosphere. Urban atmospheres contain
                                 about 100 times as much CO as any other pollutant. Urban carbon
                                 monoxide is produced primarily by motor vehicles. Another significant
                                 source of CO is emissions from wood burning stoves and
                                 fireplaces.  The remaining emissions originate from industrial and
                                 construction equipment, air craft, point sources, space heating and
                                 railroad sources.

                                 Because motor vehicle emissions are the major source of CO, daily
                                 concentration peaks coincide with morning and evening rush hours. The
                                 worst carbon monoxide problems are found where large numbers of
                                 slow moving cars congregate, such as in large parking lots or during
                                 traffic jams. CO can thus temporarily accumulate to harmful levels,
                                 especially in calm weather during autumn and winter. CO problems are
                                 worst in winter because: 1) cold weather makes motor vehicles run less
                                 efficiently; 2) wood burning emissions for space heating are increased;
                                 and 3) on winter nights a strong inversion layer may develop near the
                                 ground, trapping pollutants.

                                 Health and Welfare Effects
                                 Carbon monoxide affects the central nervous system by depriving the
                                 body of oxygen. Tests of automobile drivers show exposure to carbon
                                 monoxide can impair a driver's judgment and ability to respond rapidly
                                 in traffic.

                                 Carbon monoxide enters the body through the lungs, where it is
                                 absorbed by the bloodstream and combines with hemoglobin, the
                                 substance that carries oxygen to the cells. Hemoglobin that is bound
                                 with CO is called carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). Hemoglobin binds
                                 approximately 240 times more readily with CO than with oxygen. Thus,
                                 the amount of oxygen being distributed throughout the body by the
                                 bloodstream is reduced in CO's presence. Blood laden with CO can
                                 weaken heart contractions, lowering the volume of blood distributed to
                                 various parts of the body. It can also significantly reduce a healthy
                                 person's ability to perform manual tasks, such as working, jogging and
                                 walking. A life-threatening situation exists in patients with heart disease,
                                 who are unable to compensate for the oxygen loss. The millions of
                                 people in the U.S. suffering from angina pectoris (a heart disease
                                 characterized by brief spasmodic attacks of chest pain due to
                                 insufficient oxygen levels in the heart muscles) are especially

                                 EPA has concluded that the following groups may be particularly
                                 sensitive to exposures of CO: Angina patients, individuals with other
                                 types of cardiovascular disease, persons with chronic obstructive
                                 pulmonary disease, anemic individuals, fetuses, and pregnant
                                 women.  Concern also exists for healthy children because of increased
                                 oxygen requirements that result from their higher metabolism rate.

Record Type: Interpretation
      Standard Number: 1910.134(g)(4)
      Subject: Two-in/two-out rule for interior structural fire fighting.
      Information Date: 11/13/1998

 November 13, 1998

 Mark Schultz, GFD
 Senior Fire Inspector
 Gallatin Fire Department
 119 Foster Street
 Gallatin, TN 37066-3209

 Dear Mr. Schultz:

 This is in response to your letter of April 30, addressed to Mr. John B. Miles asking for
 interpretations of the new Respiratory Protection Standard, 29 CFR 1910.134. You had
 specific questions regarding the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's)
 two in/two out requirement. We apologize for the long delay of this response. As you may
 be aware, Federal OSHA does not have jurisdiction over employees of State and local
 governments, including firefighters. However, the State of Tennessee does cover public
 sector employees under its OSHA-approved occupational safety and health State plan.
 Tennessee has adopted a standard identical to the Federal respiratory protection
 standard. While the State may interpret its standard differently from Federal OSHA, the
 interpretations must be at least as effective as the Federal interpretations. You may wish
 to contact the Tennessee Department of Labor concerning its enforcement of the
 respiratory protection standard. The address is:

                          Michael E. Magill, Commissioner
                         Tennessee Department of Labor
                          710 James Robertson Parkway
                         Nashville, Tennessee 37243-5078

 Telephone: (615) 741-2582

 We are providing Commissioner Magill with a copy of this letter.

 You had several questions asking if the two in/two out rule for interior structural fire
 fighting was a one for one policy, specifically if four people were in did that mean that
 four people had to stand by, if eleven people were inside, did that mean eleven people
 had to be on stand by and so on. No, the two in/two out rule may not be interpreted as
 four in/four out, eight in/eight out. There must always be at least two firefighters
 stationed outside during interior structural firefighting, prepared to enter if necessary to
 rescue the firefighters inside. However, the incident commander has the flexibility to
 determine whether more than two outside firefighters are necessary when more than two
 firefighters go inside. In a situation where the burning structure is very large, additional
 outside firefighters may be warranted to ensure effective assistance and rescue. For
 example, where the firefighting involves entry from different locations or levels, two
 outside fire fighters may have to be stationed at each point of entry.

 You also asked whether standby personnel had to wait for additional standby personnel
 before entering to attempt a rescue of fire fighters in a structural fire. No. There is an
 explicit exemption in the Respiratory Protection Standard that if life is in jeopardy, the
 two-in/two out requirement is waived. The incident commander and the firefighters at the
 scene must decide whether the risks posed by entering an interior structural fire prior to
 the assembly of at least four firefighters is outweighed by the need to rescue victims who
 are at risk of death or serious physical harm. There is no violation of the standard under
 rescue circumstances.

 Please note that on August 3, 1998, OSHA published Questions and Answers on the
 Respiratory Protection Standard. This 79 page document contains guidance on
 respiratory protection. There are many questions in this document on respiratory
 protection and firefighting issues and may help you develop a thorough respiratory
 protection program. In addition, OSHA has recently published the Compliance Directive,
 CPL 2-0.120, an inspection procedure document for the OSHA field offices, and the Small
 Entity Compliance Guide to assist small employers in complying with the respiratory
 standard. All these documents can be found on the Internet at the OSHA Home Page at

 Should you require any additional information on this matter, please, feel free to contact
 our Office of Health Compliance Assistance at (202) 693-2190.


 Richard E. Fairfax
 Acting Director
 Directorate of Compliance Programs